What Is a Welding Position?
Welding position is a technique that allows the welder to join metal in the position in which they are found or position in which specifics components would be used. Often this can be on the ceiling, in a corner, or on the floor.
Techniques have been developed to allows welding in any position. Some welding processes have all position capabilities, while others may be uses in only one or two positions. All welding can be classified accords to the position of the workpieces or the position of the welded joint on the plate, or the classes being welded.
It is clear that not every weld can be welded in a horizontal and flat position. Sometimes other welding positions may be necessary for the design or manufacture of assemblies and adapters, as the workpiece cannot be held in the required position due to its shape or size.
Why Are There Different Welding Positions?
Those who have never taken a welding class or fielded fused metal may assume that a welder simply sits at a workstation and fuses metal components in front of them, moving freely around the table, and Restores the workpiece as needed.
But in an everyday work environment, joining metal can be more difficult. The workpiece can be attached to the ceiling, corner, or floor. Techniques are needed for the welder to be able to weld in any position. So four general welding positions were developed.
What Are the Welding Symbols for the Different Positions?
Let’s bring all of this is concepts together so you know which welding positions to uses when reading the welding symbols on an architect’s blueprint:
|Welding Symbol||Welding Position||Weld Type|
|1 F||Flat position||Fillet weld|
|1 G||Flat position||Groove weld|
|2 F||Horizontal position||Fillet weld|
|2 G||Horizontal position||Groove weld|
|3 F||Vertical position||Fillet weld|
|3 G||Vertical position||Groove weld|
|4 F||Overhead position||Fillet weld|
|4 G||Overhead position||Groove weld|
#1. Flat Position (1F or 1G)
These are the easiest weld position and can be learned quickly. The metals to be joined are laid flat, and the welder moves the electric arc over them in a horizontal direction across the workpiece.
The top portion of the joint is welded together to allow the molten material to flow down into its edges or grooves. The number “1” refers to the flat positions, while the letter “G” refers to the grooves weld.
In the flat position, the joint or workpiece to be welded is placed under the welding torches. In this regard, the molten metal flows downward into the joint. The result is easy to complete the weld. This weld position can be used to perform grooves, fillet, and butt welds.
#2. Horizontal Position (2F or 2G)
The horizontal or 2G position is a bit more complicated than the flat position. As with vertical and overhead, horizontal positions can be more challenging to perform and require a higher level of skill. In this position, the workpiece is held parallel to your body while welding.
In this way, the workpiece remains in front of you while welding. This position can be used to obtain either a fillet or a groove weld. For a fillet weld, the torch will be held at a 45-degree angle. The weld axis is horizontal. How the positions are executed depends on the type of weld.
For fillet welds, the weld bead is placed where a vertical and horizontal piece of metal meet at a 90-degree angle. When welding a groove, the weld face will be along a vertical plane.
#3. Vertical Position (3F or 3G)
For verticals position welds, both the weld & the plate will be located vertically. One of the major problems when performing these welds is the molten metal flowing down and accumulating. Welding in a vertical position downhill or uphill can prevent this problem.
Vertical Uphill Position:-
In this position, both the weld and the workpiece are located vertically. One problem with this is the tendency of the molten metal to flow downward and upward due to gravity. To remedy this, torches have to be kept at an angle of 45 degrees. In addition, you use the lower metal of the workpiece to achieve a vertical climbing position.
Vertical Downhill Position:-
Like the vertical uphill positions, the workpiece is also placed in the vertical downhill position in a vertical position. However, instead of using the lower metal of the workpiece, you use the upper part of the workpiece.
#4. Overhead Position (4F or 4G)
The overhead positions are the most difficult position for weld work. Welding will be done with two pieces of metal on top of the welder, and the welder will have to angle himself and the equipment to reach the joints. A major issue may be the loosening of metal from the plate.
When metal is bent, it forms crowns. To avoid this issue, the puddles of molten metals should be kept small. As you can see, the welding positions are essentially the location of the welder with respect to the workpiece. One of the majors considerations with each position is the direction that the welding consumables will flow due to gravity.
The position of the welded joint for joining plates or sections forms the basics for all welding classification, which are represented by welding symbols. Before we discuss different welding classifications, it may help you to firsts understand the types of welds & weld joints at which these positions are generally performed.
What is the 1G 2G 5G 6G Pipe Welding Positions?
In the constructions phase of a project in the oil & gas industry, we often find welding activities on pipes or welding on tanks. In order to maintain the quality of welding, professional organizations (ASME, AWS, ISO, JWES) make rules and classifications of welding positions.
All welders involved in construction need to be certified in accordance with these designations. In general, the pipes welding position is divided into two types, namely the welding position at the groove joint and the welding position at the fillet joint. Most welding connections on pipe use the type of groove joints; that is why we often hear the term pipe welding position.
Pipe welding positions are divided into four groups, namely 1G, 2G, 5G, and 6G. Comparison between ISO Standard Positions and ASME/AWS Welding Positions:
|No||Welding Positions (ISO)||Welding Positions (ASME / AWS)|
|1||PA||1G / 1F|
Welding has two aspects; skills and knowledge. The welder’s skill is assessed by welder performance qualification. This quality is an important demonstration of a welder’s ability to deposit welds. So, things like position, backing, uphill, & downhill, etc.
#1. 1G Pipe Welding Position
This is the easiest welding position. The 1G welding position is a position where the pipe is in horizontal positions & the pipe can be rotated against the horizontals axis or the X-axis. The welder does the welding from the top of the pipe. The position of the welder does not change.
#2. 2G Pipe Welding Position
These are a welding position that is easy to do. The 2G welding position is a position where the pipe is in a vertical direction, and the welds axis is in the horizontals direction. The welder performs welding from the side of the pipe with a horizontal welding direction.
#3. 5G Pipe Welding Position
5G welding position is a situation where the pipe is in the horizontal or X-axis position, but the pipe is stationary or cannot be rotated. The welder performs the welding while moving it around the pipe. This situation is almost the same as the 1G situation; only the pipe cannot be rotated.
It is also called PF in ISO/EN standards. Welding in 5G is done vertically, either upwards or downwards.
#4. 6G Pipe Welding Position
This pipe’s welding position is the most difficult welding position. The only welder having sufficient experience is capable of welding with a 6G position. Pipe in a sloping position that is approximately 45° from the horizontal axis (X-axis) or 45° from the vertical axis (Y-axis).
The pipe cannons are rotated, so the welder musts are welding while the pipe is moving around. Welding positions are important variables to determine weld quality. If welders have the qualification of 1G position, he is not allowed to perform welding in a more difficult condition such as 6G positions.
But on the contrary, if the welders have 6G positions qualifications, he is allowed to perform welding in a 1G position. A welding inspector is responsible for verifying these requirements to be implemented.
1G, 2G, 5G, 6G Welding Positions limitations in WPS:
ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section IX also makes very good guidelines and limits regarding welding conditions in WPS for the specific welding process. Take an example for the GTAW process for other welding processes; we do the same thing, check each variable to know what happens to it when we replace them.
For the GTAW process, any joint in the welding position is classified as an essential variable. This means that welding conditions have a significant impact on weld quality results. QW-252 states that a change in qualified status is necessary.
|QW-253 WELDING VARIABLES PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW)|
|Paragraph||Brief of Variables||Essential||Nonessential|
|0.1||Φ Groove design||…||NE|
|0.7||T/t limits > 8 inch (203 mm)||E||…|
|0.8||Φ T qualified||E||…|
|0.9||t pass > ½ in.||E||…|
|0.11||Φ P-No. qualified||E||…|
|0.13||Φ P-No. 5/9/10||E||…|
|0.33||Φ AWS class||…||NE|
|0.3||Φ↑↓ Vertical welding||…||NE|
|0.1||Decrease > 100°F (56oC)||E||…|
|0.2||Φ Preheat maintenance||…||NE|
|0.4||Φ Current or polarity||…||NE|
|0.8||Φ I & E range||…||NE|
|0.5||Φ Method cleaning||…||NE|
|0.6||Φ Method back gouge||…||NE|
|0.9||Φ Multiple to single-pass/side|
|0.25||Φ Manual or automatic||…||NE|