What Is Automobile?
A self-propelled passenger vehicle, which is used for land transport and usually consists of four to eight tires & is powered by an internal combustion engine or an electric motor. The branches of engineering which deal with the manufacture and technologies of automotive vehicles are known as automobiles engineering.
Today automobiles play a majors role in our lives, cannot be imagined without the luxuries of the modern world. The automobile is used for both passenger and goods transportation, so it serves as a lifeline for humans. An automobile is a vehicle that is not controlled by humans but controlled by humans.
There are huge varieties of vehicles in automobiles, for example, cars, buses, trucks, bikes, etc. An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that has a power source for its propulsion and is used to carry passengers and goods on land, such as cars, buses, trucks, etc.
Type of Automobiles:
The automobiles are classified in the following ways,
#1. On the Basis of Load
- Heavy transport vehicle (HTV) or heavy motor vehicle (HMV), Light transport vehicle (LTV), Light motor vehicle (LMV),
#2. On the Basis of Wheels
- Two-wheeler vehicle, for example, ScooterScooter, motorcycle, ScooterScooter, etc. Three-wheeler vehicles, for example, Autorickshaw, Three-wheeler scooter for handicaps and tempo, etc. Four-wheeler vehicle, for example, Car, jeep, trucks, buses, etc. Six-wheeler vehicles, for example, Big trucks with two gear axles.
#3. On the basis of Fuel Used
- Petrol vehicle, e.g., motorcycle, Scooter, cars, etc. Diesel vehicles, e.g., trucks, buses, etc. An electric vehicle that uses the battery to drive. Steam vehicle, e.g., an engine which uses steam engine. Gas vehicle, e.g., LPG and CNG vehicles, where LPG is liquefied
#4. Passenger Vehicle
- Cars, Bus, Taxi, etc.Goods Vehicle: Trucks, Tempos, Containers, etc.
#5. Special Purpose Vehicle
- Ambulance, Fire brigade, etc.
#6. According to Load carrying capacity
- Light motor vehicle (LMV): Cars, Jeeps, etc.
#7. Medium transport vehicle (MMV)
- Tempos etc. heavy motor vehicle (HMV): Trucks, Tractors, etc.
#8. According to the number of wheels
- Two-wheeler: Motorcycle, ScooterScooter, etc.
- Three-wheeler:-Autoriksha etc.
- Four-wheeler: Cars, Jeeps, etc.
- Six-wheelers: Trucks, Busses, etc.
#9. On the basis of body style
- Sedan Hatchback car.
- Coupe car Station wagon Convertible.
- Van Special purpose vehicle, e.g., ambulance, milk van, etc.
#10. On the basis of Transmission
- Conventional vehicles with a manual transmission, e.g., cars with five gears.
- Automatic: In automatic Transmission, gears are not required to be changed manually.
#11. On the basis of Drive
- Left-hand Drive.
- Right-hand Drive.
#12. On the basis of Driving Axle
- Front-wheel Drive.
- Rear-wheel Drive.
- All-wheel Drive.
#13. Position of Engine
- The engine in Front – Most vehicles have the engine in the front. Example: most of the cars,
The engine in the Rear Side, very few vehicles have the engine located in the rear—for example, a Nano car.
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The Superstructure of Automobile:
In the case of integral or frameless constructions, the body is an integral part of the chassis. But, in the case of the traditional chassis, the body or superstructure is made after receiving the chassis from the manufacturer. Body size depends on the end-use for which the vehicle is designed.
Travel comfortably; cushioned seats are provided. To protect the passengers from dust & rain, the body has glass panes all over it. The bus is made of body metal, such as
- Steel section pillars with steel sheet paneling,
- Steel section poles with aluminum paneling and
- All aluminum bodies, i.e., pillars, structures, and paneling made of aluminum squares and sheets. This is because aluminum is much lighter in weight than steel.
The driver’s compartment is covered in the body of a truck, and the rest is kept open. Such bodies are usually called load bodies. In most cases, it is an open body, while for liquids such as water, milk, and fuel products, tanks are mounted on the chassis. The body is attached to the chassis with the help of I- or U-bolts with rubber packing between the chassis and body cross members.
Requirements of Automobile:
The body of motor vehicles should fulfill certain requirements. It should
- Be lightweight.
- Have a minimum number of components.
- Have long, fatigue life.
- Have uniformly distributed load.
- Have sufficient space for passengers and luggage.
- Have good access to the engine & suspension system.
- Have minimum vibrations when vehicles are running.
- Have minimum resistance to air.
- Be cheap and easy in manufacturing.
- Have clear all-round vision through glass areas.
- Have an attractive shape and color.