What Is Planer Machine?
A planar machine is a type of metal machine that uses linear relative motion reciprocity between the workpiece & a single-point cutting tool to cut the workpiece. Planers are similar to a shaper, but there are some basic differences.
The planar machine is large and has a moving workpiece, while the machine cutting tool runs in the Shaper. Shapers are types of machine tool that uses relative linear motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine the linear toolpath. Its cut is similar to a lathe, except that it is basically linear rather than helical.
Planar is a machine tool used to produce precise flat surfaces and cutting slots. It is similar to the shaper machine, but the planar machine is larger in terms of size. The workpiece slots move from one point to another here for operation, while the workpiece slots in the shaper machine were in a steady state. The principle of the planar machine is the concept of relative tool-work motions.
The reciprocal exchange of the tool or job and the slow, intermittent transverse feed motion is provided to the job or tool by faster straight path cutting motions. All the work done in planning machines can be done in a shaping machine.
Stroke length, larger size, & higher rigidity enable planning machines to perform larger jobs and more heavy work on their long surfaces. It produces plane and flat surfaces with a single-point cutting tool.
The planer machine is larger and heavier than the shaper machine. Planar machining can perform heavy workpieces, which cannot be done on a shaper surface.
Type of Planer Machine:
#1. Definition of Planing Machine
A planning machine is a linear motion machine tool that uses a planer to plan the plane, groove, or surface of a workpiece. Using planar processing, the equipment is simple, but productivity is low except for long and narrow planes, so it is used primarily for single parts, small batch production, and machine repair workshops, often in large-scale production. It Is replaced by milling machines.
#2. Classification of Planing Machine
There are many types and models of planners. According to its structural characteristics, it can be broadly divided into:
The shaping machine is a planner used to plan small and medium-sized workpieces, and the working length is generally not more than one meter. The workpiece is clamped to the worktable that can be adjusted or clamped to the flat-nose pliers on the worktable, & the reciprocating motions of the planer cutting motion & the intermittent movement of the worktable feeding motion are used for placement.
According to the lengths of the workpieces that can be processed, the Shaper can be divided into three types: large, medium, and small: a small shaper can process a workpiece with a length of less than 400 mm, such as the B635-1 Shaper. ; Medium shaper can process 400 ~ 600mm workpiece length, such as B650 type shaper; The large scale shaper can process workpieces with a length of 400 ~ 1000 mm, such as B665 type and B69O type shaper.
It is a planner that is used to plan large workpieces. Some planning mills can process workpieces with a length of tens of meters or more, such as a B2063 planning mill with a working area of 6.3m × 20m. For small and medium-sized workpieces, it can fasten several pieces to the workspace at a time, and you can also plan with multiple planning knives at the same time. Productivity is relatively high.
The planning mill uses the direct reciprocating movement cutting of the worktable and the intermittent movement of the planning knife feeding movement to carry out the planning process. According to different structural forms, there are two types of planar; the planning mill is divided into a single-arm planning mill and a double-arm column planning mill.
The planning mill mainly processes large workpieces or multiple workpieces at the same time. Compared to Shaper, from a structural point of view, it is larger in size, the structure is more complex, and the stiffness is better.
From the points of view of the actions of the machine tool, the main speed of the planing mill is the linear reciprocal motion of the table, while the feed speed is the horizontal or vertical intermittents motion of the planers. This is in complete contrast to the speed of the shaping machine.
The planning mill is operated by a direct current motor and can have step-less speed regulation; the movement is smooth. All equipment holders of the planning mill can be moved in parallel in horizontal and vertical directions.
The planning mill is mainly used for processing large aircraft, especially long and narrow planes. Generally, the width of the workpiece that can be planned is up to 1 meter, and the length is over 3 meters. The main parameter of the planning mill is the maximum planning width.
The slotting machines are also called vertical planner, which is mainly used to process the inner surface of the workpiece. Its structures are almost the same as that of Shapers. The difference is mainly that the insertion device of the insertion machine makes a linear reciprocating motion cutting speed in the verticals direction.
In addition to the intermittents feed motions in vertical and horizontal directions, the table can perform intermittent rotary feed motions in spherical rooms. According to the various transmission methods, the planer consists of two types of mechanical transmission and hydraulic transmission: mechanically operated shapers, planning mills and slotting machines, hydraulically operated shapers, and slot machines.
#3. Process characteristics of Planning Machine
According to the cutting speed and specific processing requirements, the structural ratio of the planning machine, lathe machine, and milling machine is simple, low in price, and easy to adjust and operate. The single-edge planer used is basically similar to the turning tool, with a simple shape, which is quicker to manufacture, faster, and more convenient to install.
The main motion of the scheme is the reciprocal linear motion, which is affected by the inertial force in the opposite direction, as well as the effect of the cutter during cutting in & out, which limits the increases in cutting speed.
Lengths of the cutting edge that a single-edge planer actually participates in the cutting are limited, & surfaces often need to be processed through multiples strokes, and the original process time is long. When the planar returns to stroke, no cutting is done, and processing stops, which increases the supporting time.
Therefore, the productivity of planning is lowering than that of milling. However, for the processing of long & narrow surfaces such as guide rails, long grooves, etc., when several pieces or several cutters are processed on the gantry planer, the productivity of the plan may be higher than that of milling.
The accuracy of the scheme can reach IT9 IT8, and the surface roughness Ra value is 3.2μm 1.6 μm. When using wide-blade precision planning, i.e., using a wide-blade fine planer on a gantry planer to cut a very thin layer of metal from the surface of the part at a very low cutting speed, large feed rate, and small cutting depth Use for.
Smaller, less cutting heat and less deformation, so the surface roughness of the parts can reach the Ra value 1.6μm ~ 0.4μm, can reach up to 0.02mm / m straight. A wide-blade fine plan can replace grinding scraping, which An advanced and effective method is to eliminate aircraft.
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#4. Operating Guidelines of Planing Machine
Seriously apply the relevant provisions of the “General Operating Rules for Metal Cutting Equipment Machines.” Check that the feed shaft cover should be correctly installed and fastened tightly to prevent loosening during feeding.
Dry Run Before the test run, the rams must be driven back and forth with the handheld car, and after confirming that the condition is good, the motor can then be driven. Loosen the locking screw while lifting the crossbeam, and tighten the screw while working.
It is not allowed to adjust the strokes of the ram during the operation of the machine tool. While adjusting the stroke of the ram, loosening or pressing the adjustment handle by tapping it is not allowed. Ram Yatra should not exceed the specified limit. High speed is not allowed when using long strokes.
When the worktable is fed or shaken by hand, the screw’s stroke limit should be noted to protect the screw or nut from damaging or affecting the machine. When loading and unloading, it should be handled gently to avoid injuring the workpiece.
Working Principle of Planer Machine:
The worktable can be moved, and the machine’s tool head is in a stable position. The workpieces are fixed on the work table, & The single point cutting tool attaches to the tool head, & now, we switch on the machine, which means that the power supply and worktable to the machine go forward. Therefore it cuts the material and is called cutting strokes.
The worktables move downward, there is no cutting of the material, so it is called a return stroke. The process will continue until you change the power supply or other. The working principle of the planar machine is similar to the shaper machine, which is a quick return speed mechanism.
The forward stroke is completed when the workpiece moves forward, and the return stroke is completed when it moves backward. In the forward stroke, the material is cut, and no material is cut in the back. In a planar machine, the work on the machine table is rigorously fixed.
A single-point cutting tool properly placed in the tool post is mounted on the reciprocating RAM. The reciprocal motion of the ram is achieved by a rapid return speed mechanism. As the RAM reciprocates, the tool cuts the material during its forward stroke.
Main Parts of Planer Machine:
A planer machine has the following parts:
A planer bed with cross ribs similar to a box-like casting. It is heavy in weight & very large in size; it also supports the columns and moving parts of the machine. The bed is generally about twice the length of the table. So that the entire length of the table can cross through it, guideways can be provided on a very large machine to support the table. The guideways should be horizontal & parallel to each other.
The guideway is properly lubricated, and in modern machines, oil is pumped to various parts of the guideway under pressure to ensure a continuous and adequate supply of lubricants. The bed supports the column and all moving parts of the machine.
The lengths of the bed are twice the length of the table so that the table slides over it. The bed is provided with a precision-machined V-type or flat type guideway to ensure smooth sliding of the table. The bed has a driving mechanism for the table.
The table is a rectangular cast iron casting that has an accurate machined top surface for accurate detection of the work. T-slots are provided over the entire length of the table to keep the work properly, and holes are made on its surface at regular intervals to support poppets and stop pins.
At each end of the table, a sacred space is provided for collecting the chips, and a slot is cut at its edge to clamp the planar reversing the dogs at different positions.
The planner may consist of a single table or two separate tables mounted on the guideway and separated or together. Hydraulic bumpers are installed at the end of the bed to prevent the table from giving overrunning and cushioning effects. The planner’s table supports the workpiece and interacts with the bedding methods. The planar table is a heavy rectangular casting with T-slots placed over the entire length of the table so that the working and working devices are attached to it.
Hydraulics bumpers are attached to the end of the bed to prevent the table from overrunning, which will give a cushioning effect. If the table is overrun, a large cutting device bolted along the underside of the table will make a deep cut on the replaceable block absorbing the kinetic energy of the moving table.
#3. Column or Housing
The dwellings are also called pillars, such as vertical structures on each side of the bed and attached to the sides of the bed. They are heavily mechanized to sustain severe forces due to biting. Cross rails can be made to slide up and down to accommodate different heights of work; the front portion of each housing is accurately machined to provide a precise way.
Two side-tool heads also slide over it. Planar housing includes Crossrail elevating screw, vertical for tool heads and crossfeed screw, and balancing weight for Crossrail. The housing is a rigid box-like vertical structure that is fastened on each side of the bed. They are also called upward facing. They are heavily ribbed to lift heavy loads during the cutting process.
The front section of each housing has been provided with precise ways to move the cross rail up and down and also has two side tool heads. The columns have cross rail elevating screws, vertical and crossfeed screws for tool heads. These screws can be operated with power or by hand.
#4. Cross Rail
It is a rigid cast iron box-like molding that connects the two housings. This provides additional rigidity to the machine. The cross rail can be moved up & down on the face of the housing by means of a lifting screw and clamped in any position, and it is on a table parallel to the top surface.
The front section of the cross rail is provided with an accurately machined guideway to crossfeed the tool head saddle through the screw.
The Crossrail, when clamped, must remain exactly parallel to the top surface of the table, i.e., it should be horizontal regardless of its position. There are two tool heads which are called railheads. It consists of screws for the vertical and crossfeed of the tool heads and the screw for raising the rail. Planers screws can be operated by hand or power.
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#5. Tool Head
The planar tool head is similar to the Shaper in construction & operation. Tools heads are mounted on a cross rail by saddles, which move crossword to give the crossfeed. The swivel base is mounted on the saddle and graduated to 60 degrees on each side so that it can bend the angular surfaces to any desired angle for machining by rotating the feed screw. The apron is fixed to the face of the vertical slide, which can be rotated up to 20 degrees on each side to give tool clearance during machining vertical surfaces.
The clipper block is fastened to the clipper box to hold the tool post in which the cutting tool is firmly placed. The clippers block lifts the tool head upward during the return stroke to prevent the tool’s cutting edge from being pulled to work. Tool heads can be moved up & down by moving the cross rail up and down. The tool head is a component that is assembled into the saddle, which contains the tool post.
The tool posts are attached to the head so that the cutting tool force rises above and above the table. The cutting edge of the tool will be saved as damage and allows automatics. It has a saddle, swivel base, vertical slide, apron, clapper box, clapper block, toolpost, down feed screw, apron, clamping bolt, & apron is swiveling pin. The mechanism for cross and down-feed of equipment. Supply to work without any intrusion.
Advantages of Planer Machine:
The advantages of planers machine are as follows:
- It has more precision,
- Provide a better surface finish.
- Low maintenance.
- Good accuracy
- 2 or 3 tools single-point cutting tools are performed at one time which is great for getting the
- The job was done faster.
- The main advantage here, too, is that we can use one tool at a time.
Disadvantages of Planer Machine:
These are some disadvantages of the planer machine:
- The price is high.
- Only one tool single-point cutting tool is used.
- Skilled staff required to operate the machine must have knowledge of machines.
- Power consumption is high.
Application of Planer Machine:
The planar machine has the following application:
- The planar machine is used for flat surfaces on the workpiece.
- One of the major applications is to cut angular surfaces.
- Cutting slots and grooves.
- I am using this machine to create a nice flat surface.
- A planer machine can extract a good amount of material from the workpiece at a time with good accuracy as it is equipped with many tools.
- A greater number of cutting slots.
- It is also used for cutting at an angle.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Planer is a machine tool used for producing accurate flat surfaces and cutting slots. It is similar to the shaper machine but in the case of size, the planer machine is larger.
Metal Planing Machine
The metal planning machine was one of the most important machine tools in the 19th-century engineering workshop. It allowed accurate plane surfaces to be produced at a very much lower cost than was possible by hand methods.
Planer Milling Machine
The planer milling machine has multiple types: Gantry versus open side, traditional (single tool) verse rotary spindle, multi-head (top and sides) versus single head, and many others. Each type can be controlled via a relay system, a PLC, or a CNC control. Both planer milling machine retrofits featured in this article were PLC upgrades. The first machine shown is a Giddings & Lewis Open Side Planer and the second is a Giddings & Lewis Single-Head Gantry, Type Planer.
What Is Planer Machine?
A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that uses the linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to cut the workpiece.