Pattern Allowances In Casting | Why the Pattern Allowances In Casting Affected | Typical Pattern Make’s Shrinkage of Various Metals

Pattern Allowances In Casting

Pattern Allowances In Casting:

Pattern Allowances In Casting

  • A pattern is a replica of the casting but has slightly larger dimensions.
  • This change in pattern in casting for various reasons is known as pattern allowance in casting.

Example for Pattern Allowances In Casting

  • When the cast freezes, the metal shrinks to some extent due to the shrinking property during cooling. Therefore, a pattern is made slightly larger to compensate for this.
  • This is an example of pattern allowance. There are several other reasons for pattern allowances, which will be discussed below.

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Why the Pattern Allowances in Casting Affected?

  • Sometimes the patterns are not the same size as the desired casting size. To Compensates for the patterning process, allowances are made in the pattern, removing the pattern, dimensional and structural changes during casting.
  • The different types of pattern allowances in casting are as follows. Shrinkage allowance is the most common of possible castings for casting.

Casting of Pattern Allowances


  • Casting is one of the earliest manufacturing processes known to human beings.
  • In casting, molten metal is solidified to the desired shape and size.
  • Castings are often the cheapest and most direct way of shaping the metal.
  • Practically, any intricate shape can be produced.
  • With a normal sand casting process, the dimensional accuracies and surface finish
    is poor.
  • Defects are inevitable.

Typical Pattern Make’s Shrinkage of Various Metals:

Sr.No. Metal alloy Solidification shrinkage (Volume %) Cooling shrinkage (Volume %) Solidus Temperature (⁰C)
1 Al 7.1 5.1 660
2 Cu 5.1 6.4 1083
3 Fe (pure) 3.5 6.0 to 7.5 1535
4 Steel 2.5 to 3.0 4.2 to 6.0 1500
5 Ductile cast iron -4.5 to +2.7 3.0 1148
6 Gray cast iron (2% c) 1.05 1.0 1155
7 Zn 4.7 4.0 420


  • It can also be classified into solid shrinkage and liquid shrinkage.
  • The volume decreases during the process of metal freezing called solid shrinkage.


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Allowance in Casting Process:

  • The volume is reduced during the metals cooling process is called liquid shrinkage.

Draft Allowance

draft on external and internal surface

  • The leading edge likely breaks or is damaged during removal from the mold. In order to be avoided, the taper is to allow on the pattern and easily remove from the edge of the mold.
  • This taper has some angles called draft angles. The draft angle depends on the type of molding, height, and complexity of the pattern.

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Finishing or Machining Allowance:

  • They produce chunks using the sand casting method. The surface finish of the part will be poor.
  • So it avoids, during the machining process, the molding of the product is twisted or ground together on the surface to improve the surface finish, removing some substantial amount of metal from the mold part.
  • To compensate for this, machining or finishing allowances are given in the casting. This allowance is added together to the original shape of the pattern.

Based on the amount of allowance added to the pattern,

  • Type of the machining process
  • Material used
  • Accuracy required
  • Molding method

It varies from 2 mm to 15 mm depending on the size and material of the part. For very large machining allowances to increase the cost of molten metal and to remove more of the metal from the mold part by machining.

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Shake or Wrapping Allowance:

  • The pattern is removed from the mold cavity, sometimes wrapping the pattern for easy removal from the cavity. In this case, the final mold cavities are enlarged.
  • So to compensate for the enlargement, the amplitude of the pattern must be reduced. This is called a shake or wrapping allowance.

Distortion or Camber Allowance:

Distortion or camber allowance

  • When the mold is in a cooling process, tension is developed into a solid metal due to uneven metal thickness or over-cooling to allow for casting.
  • These stresses can induce deformation or bend in the castings. This can be avoided by initially distorting patterns in the opposite direction.
  • The thickness of the casting part is uneven. Therefore, the solidification process section does not have a uniform thermal stresses.
  • Therefore those castings are deformed. Avoid that, the chamber provided in the opposite direction.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Pattern Allowances in Casting

A pattern is always made larger than the required size of the casting, considering the various allowances. These are the allowances that are usually provided in a pattern.

Allowances in Casting

The allowance is provided on the pattern if the casting is to be machined. The amount of this allowance varies from 1.6 to 12.5 mm, which depends upon the type of the casting metal, size, and shape of the casting. Ferrous metals require more machining allowance than nonferrous metals.

Pattern Allowances

This change in the pattern is due to when the cast solidifies; it shrinks at some limit due to the metal shrinkage property at the time of cooling. So to compensate for this, a pattern is made a little bigger. These slight changes in the pattern are known as pattern allowance.

Types of Pattern Allowances

Pattern allowances are five types shrinkage, draft, machining, deformation, and rapping allowances.

Draft Allowance in Casting

The leading edge may break off during the removal of the cast. In order to permit removal and reduce the defects, the vertical faces of the pattern are tapered at a small angle known as the draft angle. This provision is known as draft allowance. The inner surface pattern required more draft than the outer surface.

Casting Allowances

There are five types of casting allowances are there, and those are:

  • Shrinkage Allowance.
  • Machining Allowance.
  • Draft Allowance.
  • Shake Allowance.
  • Distortion Allowance.

Shrinkage Allowance in Casting

It is defined in DIN EN 12890 and specifies the difference in length of cast parts between casting mold and casting. Only linear shrinkage is taken into account. It depends on the type of casting material, construction as well as stability of the mold during solidification and shrinkage.

Steel Casting Shrinkage Allowance

Cast steel, for example, will shrink about ¼ in. per foot and produce rough-looking castings. Shrinkage allowances are known for various metals and an experienced mold designer will take the shrinkage into account when designing a mold.

Pattern Shrinkage Allowance

Patternmakers correct for solidification shrinkage and thermal contraction by making the mold cavity oversized. The amount by which mold is made larger relative to the final casting size is called pattern shrinkage allowance.

Cast Iron Shrinkage Allowance

For grey cast iron, shrinkage allowance is given from 6.95 to 10.5mm/m. For white cast iron and steel, it is given up to 20.8 mm/m. For brass, it is given up to 15.3 mm/m

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