Jigs and Fixtures:
- Some machining operations are very simple ‘which are done quite easily, such as turning, the job is in position in the chuck, and the turning operation is performed easily.
- Such operation does not require any other equipment to operate the machine or guide the equipment.
- But some operations are of the type in which the equipment is required to be guided through another instrument, and some functions are of the type that is required to be positioned through another instrument on the machine.
- The device that guides the tool is called the jig, and the device that operates in position is called the fixator.
Jigs and fixtures are special-purpose equipment used to facilitate production (machining, assembling, and inspection operations) when the workpiece is based on the concept of interchangeability, according to which each part will be produced within an established tolerance.
- Jigs and fixtures provide through the manufacture of interchangeable parts as they establish a connection with tolerance between the work and the cuttings tool.
- They eliminate the need for a special set for each individual park. Therefore a jig can be defined as a device that holds and positions the work, locate or guide the outing tool relative to the workpiece, and is usually not fixed on the m / c table.
- It is usually mild in construction.
A fixture is a work-holding device and working condition, but the cutting tool does not detect or dictate its position ‘; the setting of the tool is done by machine adjustment and a setting resistor using a slip gauge. A fixture is clamp-ed to hold or machine table.
- It is usually heavy in construction. Jigs are used on drillings, reaming, tapping, and boring operations of shorelines, while fixtures are used in connection with turning, milling, grindings, shaping, planning, and boring operations.
The use of jigs and stability makes possible more rapid and more precise manufacturing at cost reduction.
Also, Read: Forging And Its Types:
Uses of Jigs And Fixtures:
- Jigs and fixture is used to reduce the costs of production as used in finishing work and installing equipment.
- To increase production.
- To ensure high accuracy of parts.
- To provide interchangeability.
- Capable of making heavy and complex shaped parts rigorously machined by machine.
- Controlling quality control expenses.
- Less skilled workers.
- Partially automates machine tools.
- Improve safety in work, thereby reducing the rate of accidents.
What Is a jig?
- A jig is a type of custom-made work holding device that is used to control the location and speed of parts and other equipment.
- In the CNC machining process, a jig often locates the workpiece in an appropriate position and cutting tool.
- Guides to maintain the correct relationship between operation, work, and cutter. When the jig moves, the instrument remains stationary.
- The machining part is usually secured to the jig by clamping.
Also, Read: What Is Pipe Joint? | Types of Pipe Joints
Types of Jigs:
- The most common type of jig is a drill jig, used to guide drill bits to make holes at specific locations; examples of drill jigs are box jig, angle plate jig, sandwich jig, and channel jig.
- Wooden working jigs are widely used to create complex wooden profiles.
- There are also other types of jigs, including template jig, plate jig, diameter jig, ring jig, indexing jig, welding jig, jeweler jig, and others.
Jigs of Jigs and Fixtures:
- The most common jigs are a drill and boring jigs. These devices are basically the same. The difference lies in the size, types, and placement of drill bushes.
- Boring jigs usually have large bushes. These bushes may also have internal oil grooves to keep the boring bar lubricated.
- Often, boring jigs use more than one bushing to support the boring bar during the machining cycle.
- In the shop, drills jigs are the most widely used form of the jig. Drills jigs are used for drilling, tapping, reaming, chamfering, counterboring, countersinking, and similar operations. Sometimes, drill jigs are used to perform assembly work.
- In these situations, bushes guide pins, dowels, or other assembly elements.
- Jigs are identified by their basic construction. Two commons forms of jigs are open and closed. Open jigs operate on only one, or sometimes two, edges of a workpiece.
- On the other hand, closed jigs operate on two or more sides. The most commons open jigs are template jigs, plate jigs, table jigs, sandwich jigs, and angles plate jigs.
- Typical examples of closed jigs include box jigs, channels jigs, and leaf jigs.
- Other forms of jigs rely more on the application of the instrument for their identification than their construction. These include indexing jigs, trunnions jigs, and multi-station jigs.
- Typical industry applications have led to the development of specialized drill jigs. For example, fine rivet holes located in aircraft fuses and wings need to be drilled, creating the design of large jigs with shrubs and liners installed, unlike the plane surface.
- A portable air-feed drill with a bushing attached to its nose is inserted through the liner in the jig, and drilling is completed at each location.
What Is a Fixture?
- The fixator is a work-holding device used to safely locate, support, and mount the machine in a safe position, to ensure that the workpiece fixed in the fixture maintains conformity and interchangeability can.
- When the fixture moves, the instrument moves relative to the part. The fixtures can ensure that the part is stable, simplifying the mounting of the workpiece so that a quick transition from part to part and smooth operation can be realized.
- What distinguishes the jig does not guide the instrument.
Types of Fixtures:
- Depending on the operation to be carried out, the fixtures can be divided into twist fixtures, milling fixtures, grinding fixtures, brushing fixtures, drilling fixtures, fixtures, welding fixtures, and fixtures.
Fixtures of Jigs and Fixtures:
- Fixtures have much wider scopes of application than jigs. These stewards are designed for applications where the cutting tool cannot be easily guided as a drill.
- With fixtures, an edge finder, center finder, or gauge block positions the cutter.
- Examples of more common fixtures include milling fixtures, lathe fixtures, saw fixtures, and piece fixtures. In addition, a fixture can be used in almost any operation requiring a precise relationship to the position of the tool to a workpiece.
- Fixtures are often identified by machine tools where they are used. Examples include mill fixtures or lathe fixtures. But functions of stability can also identify a stability type. So can basic construction of equipment.
- Thus, although a tool can only be called a mill fixture, it can also be defined as a straddle-milling, plate-type mill fixture.
- In addition, a lathe constant can also be defined as a radius-bend, angle-plate lathe constant.
- The tool designer usually determines the specific identity of these tools.
Difference Between Jig and Fixture:
Both jigs and fixtures used for machine tools can reduce work time and improve productivity. Fixture vs. jig, what are the differences between fixture and jig.
- Main Function: the jig is mainly used to guide the movement of repeated cutters to predefined locations at work and also to support and locate the part. The fixture is mainly used to secure, support, and locate the workpiece and maintain a predefined orientation, not directing the cutter.
- Complexity: jigs are generally easy to use, while fixtures are complex and may require some skills and accessories for operation.
- Weight: the jig is often lighter in weight for quicker handlings, while fixtures are usually heavier and are required to withstand cutting force and vibration.
- Whether fitted to the machine: the jigs are not fixed to the table and can be hand-held without clamping in machining; they can be clamped for heavy work and require no additional equipment, while the fixtures are CNC, the worktable of the machine is always firmly clamped, and accessories such as blocks or gauges are needed to move the cutting tool correctly.
- CNC machining applications: jigs are commonly used in drillings, boring, reaming, and tapping, while fixtures are adopted for milling, slotting, shaping, turning, and planning.
- Cost: molasses are generally more expensive than fixtures.
- Design: the construction of the jigs is often designed to be more complex, while the fixture designs are simpler.
- Whether contact with the cutting tool: the fixtures do not make direct contact with the cutting tool; it is designed to fit a certain part individually. But the jig is exposed to the tool to set the angle and position correctly.
- How it is used: the fixtures are usually made from gray cast iron or steel parts by welding or bolting, usually using standard parts such as bushes and screws.