What Is Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
- Electrolux refrigeration is also known as domestic alloctolux refrigeration or sometimes as three fluid refrigeration because it uses three liquids for the cooling process, which are ammonia, water, and hydrogen.
- Ammonia acts as a coolant in this refrigeration system. Water is used as a solvent. Ammonia dissolves in water.
- Hydrogen gas is used to increases the rate of evaporation and hence the rate of cooling. Hydrogen increases the evaporation rate because it is a very light gas and is not soluble in water.
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Different Components of Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
There are seven different components of a Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator are: –
- Gas Burner.
- Heat Exchanger.
- A solution of ammonia (NH3) and water is present inside this generator.
#2. Gas Burner:-
- This heats the generator. The ammonia and water inside the generator are heated, and the ammonia dissolved in water is converted into vapor.
- The vapor generated by a heating solution of ammonia and water reaches the rectifier after leaving the generator.
- This vapor contains ammonia vapor and some particles of water (H2O).
- The reformer will hold water particles and only allow ammonia vapor to pass through it. After passing the rectifier, the ammonia vapor will go into the condenser.
- The water particles will be sent back to the generator again.
- The condenser will convert ammonia vapor into liquid ammonia.
- The liquid ammonia will then be sent to the evaporator.
- The liquid ammonia will come from the condenser and extract heat from the evaporator.
- Hydrogen gas comings from the absorber will be added to the evaporator and mixed with ammonia.
- This will increase the hydrogen gas evaporation rate and cooling rate.
- After that, the hot mixture of ammonia vapor and hydrogen will run back into the absorber.
- In this absorber, water is already present, which will dissolve the ammonia in it and will not dissolve as it is hydrogen insoluble. Hydrogen will rise and go to the evaporator again.
- Absorber contains water and hydrogen. Water is present at the bottoms, and hydrogen gas is present at the top. Since hydrogen is very light and insoluble in water, it will go to the evaporator.
- Feet heated in an evaporative mixture of ammonia and hydrogen will return to the absorber.
#7. Heat Exchanger:-
- After mixing in the absorber, the water and ammonia solution will be transferred to the heat exchanger and then sent back to the generator.
- The heat exchange will remove the heat from the hot weak ammonia and the water solution coming from the generator, and it will be obtained from the absorbed ammonia and water solution, and after heating, it goes back to the generator.
- A weak solution of ammonia and water that releases heat into the exchanger goes into the absorber.
Principle of Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
- The principle involved uses the properties of the gas – vapor mixture. If a liquid is in contact with an inert atmosphere, it will evaporate until the atmosphere is saturated with the vapor of the liquid.
- This evaporation requires heat that is derived from the environment in which evaporation occurs.
- Thus a cooling effect is produced. The partial pressure of the refrigerant vapor (ammonia in this case) should be lower in the evaporator and higher in the condenser.
- The total pressure across the circuit must be constant so that the only movement of the convection fluid is by convection currents. By concentrating hydrogen in those parts, the partial pressure of ammonia in the required parts of the circuit is kept low.
Working of Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
The ammonia leaving the condenser enters the liquid evaporator and evaporates into hydrogen at a lower temperature corresponding to its lower partial pressure.
A mixture of ammonia and hydrogen goes into the absorber, in which water is also poured from the separator. The water absorbs ammonia and returns to the hydrogen evaporator.
Therefore, the ammonia in the absorber passes through the ammonia circuit in the water solution as ammonia in the water circuit. This strong solution goes to the generator, where it is heated and rises to the vapor separator.
Water separates with the vapor, and a weak solution of ammonia is passed back to the absorber, thus completing the water circuit. Ammonia rises from the vapor separator into the condenser, where it condenses and then returns to the evaporator.
The actual plant includes refinements and practical modifications (which are not included here).
The following points are worth noting:
- The entire cycle is done entirely by the gravity flow of the refrigerant.
- Hydrogen gas-only rotates from the absorber to the evaporator and back.
- This type of machine efficiency is not important because the energy input is small.
- It is not used for industrial applications because the C.O.P. System is too low.
Role of Hydrogen-
The presence of hydrogen makes it possible to maintain a uniform total pressure throughout the system as well as allow the refrigerant to evaporate to a lower temperature in the evaporator corresponding to its partial pressure.
Thus the condenser and evaporator pressure of the refrigerant is maintained as follows:
- Only ammonia is present in the condenser, and the total pressure is the condensing pressure.
- Hydrogen and ammonia are present in the evaporator; their relative mass is adjusted such that the partial pressure of ammonia is the required evaporation pressure.
These are obtained without the use of pumps or valves.
Advantages of Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
Advantages of Electrolux Refrigerator over Conventional Refrigerators:
- No pump or compressor is required.
- No mechanical trouble, low maintenance cost.
- No lubrication problem; No wear and tear.
- Completely leakproof.
- No chance of pressure imbalance and no need for valves.
- The system can be designed to exhaust thermal energy — any available source of process steam, engine or turbine, solar power, etc.
- Easy control, simply by controlling the heat input.
Disadvantages of Domestic Electrolux Refrigerator:
Disadvantages of Electrolux Refrigerator over Conventional Refrigerators:
- More complex in construction and working.
- C.O.P. very low.
- The major disadvantages of this type of refrigerators are that if it goes bad once, it cannot be fixed and will have to be replaced completely.