What Is Babcock and Wilcox Boiler?
The Babcock and Wilcox boiler is a horizontal, externally fired, water hose, natural circulation boiler. This boiler is named after the individuals who discovered it. It was discovered in 1967 by Herman Babcock and Stephen Wilcox.
This Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is a water tube boiler which is a multi-tubular, high pressure, and externally fired water tube boiler that is used to generate large amounts of steam. This boiler is called a natural circulation boiler because the circulation of water in the boiler is maintained by the current.
This boiler is used to produce high-pressure steam, and with this high pressure, steam is produced in power generation industries. The high-pressure steam produced by this boiler can also be used for other purposes.
Parts of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
It has a cylindrical shell. It is made of steel. This shell is filled with water. About 2/3 of the shell is filled with RD water. This shell contains both water & steam.
The shell is provided with two support to be in a fixed position.
The superheater is used to raise the temperatures of the steam to the required level and to send it to the steam stop valve pipe.
#4. Super Heater Tubes
After removing the moisture content from the steam, the air priming pipe sends the steam to the superheater tube, where the superheater superheats the steam.
#5. Water Pipes or Tubes
There are water pipes under the boiler. These pipes are bent at an angle of 15 degrees, and the diameter of this pipe is about 10 cm. As tilted, the water taps are not completely filled with water, and the coexistence of water and steam can easily separate.
#6. Feed Check Valve
Feed check valves are used to fill the shell with water.
The Damper is used to regulate the air in the boiler.
The furnace of this boiler exists outside the boiler as it is an externally fired boiler. It is placed under the upper header.
Great exists outside the boiler shell. It is usually made of cast iron. Solid fuel (coal) is placed on top of this melt and burnt.
#10. Fire Door
Fire doors are used to ignite solid fuel in the furnace.
Baffles are also known as deflectors. They are made of fire-brick. They are used to conserve flue gases so that they do not pass directly. In addition, the area of contact and the time of contact between the flue gases and the water pipe increases, and therefore the efficiency of the boiler increases. Two rashes are used in this boiler.
#12. Anti Priming Pipe
The steam in the shell contains moisture content. So anti priming pipes are used to reduce the moisture content from the steam. This anti priming pipe has a small hole that reduces moisture from steam.
#13. Upper Header and Lower Header
The water pipe is fixed between the upper header & lower header. These water pipes fit over the holes of the upper header and lower header. The upper header & lower header are connected to the shell through the pipe.
The lower headers are present at the rear end of the boiler, & it receives water from the back end of the shell and transfers it to the water tube.
The upper header is present at the front end of the boiler. Its main function is to transfer the mixture of steam and water into the shell.
#14. Mud Box
Below the lower header, a mud box is present. This earthen box is used to collect foreign particles or sludge from water coming from a cylindrical shell through a water pipe. This sludge can be removed later.
#15. Man Hole
A manhole is an entry for a person to enter a boiler and clean the boiler inside or replace its parts at the time of its maintenance. This is sometimes referred to as an inspection hole.
#16. Blow Off Pipe
Blow-off pipes are used to remove soil particles from the soil box and excess water from the boiler.
Working of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
First, the boiler shell is fed with water using a feed pump. As the water feeds into the shell of the boiler, water starts to move from the boiler shell to the water tubes. After that, when the water tube is filled with water, the coal is lit on the top of the furnace, which produces hot gases.
These hot gases pass over the water pipe, and the cyclic plates will reflect the hot gases, and these gases will pass through the top or bottom of the water tubes or at a zig-zag speed. After passing over the water pipe, hot gases exit the boiler through a passage.
Since hot gases continuously flow from the top of the water pipe, the hot gases cause the water pipes to heat up, and the water inside the water pipe begins to heat evenly. When the water in the water pipe heats up, the water density decreases, and this causes the water to flow upward towards the upper header.
As the water in the water pipe moves upwards, its density steadily decreases, and we find a mixture of water and vapor in the upper header. Since the water taps are bent, the water taps are not completely filled with water, and water tubes coexist and can be easily separated.
This mixture of water and vapor reaches the cylindrical shell from the upper header and converges on the upper side of the boiler shell. After reaching the shell, a mixture of water and vapor enters the anti-priming pipe.
An anti priming pipe will reduce the moisture of wet steam. After that, the anti-priming pipe supplies moisture-free or dry steam to the superheater. This steam will travel into the superheater tube and, due to the flue gases, superheat and convert to superhit steam.
After converting to superheated steam, it reaches the stop valve pipe, and this stop valve is connected to the pipe stop valve where the superheated steam stops. These stop valves can be opened or closed as required, and steam can be provided to the required system. This steam is usually sent to a steam turbine to generate electricity.
Specifications of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
Specifications of Babcock and Wilcox boilers are as follows.
- The diameter of drums = 1.22 to 1.83 m.
- Length = 6.096 to 9.144 m.
- Size of super-heater tubes = 3.84 to 5.71 cm.
- Steaming Capacity = 40000 kg / hr (max).
- The size of water tubes is 7.62 to 10.16 cm.
- Efficiency = 60% to 80%.
- Working pressure = 140 bar (max).
Advantages of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
The advantages of Babcock and Wilcox boilers are as follows.
- Generate steam at high pressure and rate high (140 bar and 40000 kg/hr)
- For a given output, it occupies less space.
- Parts are accessible for cleaning, inspection, and repair.
- Parts can be disassembled and easily carried.
- Due to the heating surface, the fuel is completely burnt.
Disadvantages of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
These are some of the disadvantages of the Baybuck and Wilcox boilers:
- It is less suitable for impure and sedimentary waters, as a small deposition of the scale may cause overheating and rupture of tubes. Therefore, water treatment is essential for water hose boilers.
- Failure of the feed water supply even for a short period of time is responsible for overheating the boiler. Therefore the water level should be watched very carefully during the operation of the water tube boiler.
- Maintenance costs are high.
Applications of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler:
The applications of Babcock and Wilcox boilers are as follows.
- In the power generation industries, Babcock and Wilcox’s boilers are used to produce high-pressure steam.
- The steam generates used to produce large amounts of electricity.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Babcock Wilcox Boilers
The Babcock & Wilcox boiler is a stationary water tube boiler. It has a steam-water drum. A small tube connects the steam water drum to the uptake header and down header, as shown in the figure. A mud box is equipped with each down space header, and the collected mud is removed.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
In 1867, in Providence, Rhode Island, residents Stephen Wilcox and his partner George Herman Babcock patented the Babcock & Wilcox Non-Explosive Boiler, which used water-filled tubes and de-nucleate boiling to generate steam more safely than either under-fire or fire-tube boilers.+
Babcock & Wilcox Boiler
The CFB boiler is ideal for high sulfur and high ash fuels and various waste fuels, wood, biomass, gob and culm. Learn More.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Design and Operation in the Usa
Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is a well-known American company that has been involved in the design and manufacturing of boilers and power generation systems for over a century. While they have made significant contributions to boiler technology, their original design, the Babcock & Wilcox boiler, is particularly noteworthy.
The Babcock & Wilcox boiler is a water-tube boiler, which means that the water flows inside the tubes while the combustion gases pass around them. This design offers several advantages, including higher efficiency, better heat transfer, and increased steam generation capacity. The boiler consists of multiple interconnected tubes, usually arranged in a triangular pattern, with the furnace located at one end.
Here’s a general overview of the design and operation of a Babcock & Wilcox boiler:
- Water and steam circulation: The water is pumped into the boiler and distributed through the tubes by a circulation pump. As the water absorbs heat from the furnace, it turns into steam. The steam and water mixture then flows back to the steam drum, where the steam separates from the water.
- Steam generation: The furnace, located at one end of the boiler, is where the combustion of fuel takes place. The heat generated by the burning fuel transfers to the water circulating in the tubes, raising its temperature and producing steam.
- Superheating: To increase the energy content and temperature of the steam, some boilers employ a superheater. The superheater is a set of tubes located in the path of the flue gases. As the steam passes through these tubes, it absorbs more heat, reaching higher temperatures.
- Steam output and control: The generated steam is collected in the steam drum, where any remaining water droplets are separated. The dry steam is then directed to the steam outlet for various applications, such as powering turbines or heating processes.
Advantages of Babcock and Wilcox Boilers in the USA
- Babcock and Wilcox Boiler, Overall efficiency is high compare to other fire tube boiler.
- The tubes which get defective can be replaced easily.
- The draught loss is minimum.
- The water tubes are kept inclined to 15 degrees for the circulation of water.
Efficiency of Babcock and Wilcox Boilers in the USA
The efficiency of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) boilers in the USA can vary depending on several factors, including the specific design, size, operating conditions, and fuel being used. It’s important to note that boiler efficiency is typically measured in terms of the heat transfer efficiency or fuel-to-steam efficiency.
Historically, Babcock & Wilcox boilers have been recognized for their high efficiency compared to other boiler designs. Their water-tube design, with the combustion gases passing around the tubes, allows for better heat transfer and improved overall efficiency. This design feature, coupled with careful engineering and advancements in materials, has contributed to their reputation for efficiency.
In general, B&W boilers have achieved thermal efficiencies ranging from 70% to 90% or higher, depending on the specific model and operating conditions. However, it’s important to consider that boiler efficiency can also be influenced by factors such as load variations, maintenance practices, and fuel quality.
Maintenance Tips for Babcock and Wilcox Boilers in the Usa
Proper maintenance is essential to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) boilers in the USA. Here are some general maintenance tips to consider:
- Regular inspections: Conduct routine inspections of the boiler, including the furnace, tubes, headers, and steam drum. Look for signs of corrosion, leaks, erosion, or any other damage. Inspect the refractory lining and ensure it is intact and in good condition.
- Water treatment: Implement a comprehensive water treatment program to prevent scale formation, corrosion, and fouling. Follow B&W’s guidelines for water quality parameters, chemical dosing, and blowdown procedures. Regularly test and monitor the water chemistry to maintain proper boiler operation.
- Combustion system maintenance: Inspect and clean the burners, fuel nozzles, and ignition system regularly. Ensure proper fuel-air ratios and adjust combustion parameters as necessary for optimal efficiency and emissions control.
- Soot blowing: Perform regular soot blowing to remove ash, soot, and other deposits from the boiler tubes and surfaces. Proper soot blowing helps maintain heat transfer efficiency and prevent tube fouling.
- Safety device maintenance: Check and test safety devices, including pressure relief valves, water level controls, flame detectors, and limit switches. Ensure they are functioning correctly and in compliance with safety regulations.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Installation Cost in the Usa
The cost of installing a Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) boiler in the USA can vary significantly based on several factors, including the size and capacity of the boiler, the specific model and features, site conditions, and additional installation requirements. It’s important to note that installation costs can also be influenced by regional variations, contractor rates, and other market factors.
To get a more accurate estimate of the installation cost, it is recommended to consult with B&W or reach out to reputable boiler installation contractors who can assess your specific needs and provide a detailed quotation. They will consider factors such as site preparation, labor, materials, permits, auxiliary equipment, piping, and electrical work.
Additionally, keep in mind that the cost of the boiler itself is typically separate from the installation cost. The price of a B&W boiler will depend on the specific model, capacity, and any additional features or customization required for your application.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Diagram
I apologize, but as a text-based AI, I’m unable to directly display or provide visual diagrams. However, I can describe the general layout of a Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) boiler for you.
The B&W boiler is a water-tube boiler design. Here is a verbal description of its typical layout:
- Furnace: The furnace is located at one end of the boiler and is where the combustion of fuel takes place. It is typically a large, enclosed chamber where burners are positioned to provide heat.
- Water Tubes: The water tubes form the primary heating surface of the boiler. They are arranged in a triangular pattern and connect the steam drum (located at the top) and the water drum (located at the bottom). These tubes carry water, and the hot combustion gases pass around them.
- Steam Drum: The steam drum is located at the top of the boiler. It serves as a reservoir for the generated steam. The steam and water mixture from the water tubes enters the steam drum, where the steam separates from the water before being directed to the steam outlet.
- Water Drum: The water drum is located at the bottom of the boiler. It acts as a reservoir for the feedwater, which is pumped into the boiler for circulation. The water drum also helps in separating any remaining water droplets from the steam-water mixture before it enters the steam drum.
- Headers: Headers are large pipes that connect the water tubes. They distribute the water and steam between the steam drum and water drum, ensuring proper circulation and equal distribution of flow.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Working
Fuel burns inside the furnace and flue gases rise upward toward the water tube. Baffle plate makes sure the flue gases pass over the water tubes three times. As flue gas passes over the water tubes it exchanges heat with water through the tube walls.
Wilcox and Babcock Boiler
What Is Babcock and Wilcox Boiler?
Shortly after our establishment in 1867, Babcock & Wilcox designed the world’s first installed utility boiler. B&W boilers now provide more than 300,000 MW of generating capacity in approximately 60 countries.
What Happened to Babcock and Wilcox?
In 1975, the long-term business agreements with the British Babcock & Wilcox Ltd were ended. Subsequently, the British company was renamed Babcock International Group plc.
Babcock and Wilcox History
Our Beginnings. Established in 1867, Babcock & Wilcox is a global leader in energy and environmental technologies and services for the power and industrial markets, with operations, subsidiaries and joint ventures worldwide. In 1878 Thomas Edison purchased B&W boiler No. 92 for his Menlo Park laboratory.